The main structure of the loom is the corresponding mechanism for completing the five basic actions of weaving.
The warp yarn is divided into upper and lower layers to form a shed. There are cam (tread plate) shedding mechanism, dobby shedding mechanism and jacquard shedding mechanism. The tread plate shedding mechanism (Figure 2 tread plate shedding mechanism) uses cams to control the lifting and the sequence of the heald frame. Generally use 2-8 page heald frames, suitable for the production of various plain weave, twill weave, satin weave and corduroy fabrics. Dobby shedding mechanism (Figure 3 Dobby shedding mechanism) is controlled by the broach, pull hook and heald rod to lift the heald frame, and the lifting sequence of the heald frame is controlled by the flower tube, the pattern plate, the nail, and the heavy tail rod. In order to weave various small pattern fabrics, 16-32 page heald frames can be used. The jacquard shedding mechanism (Figure 4 Jacquard shedding mechanism) is controlled by lifting knives, hooks (or straight needles), healds, etc. to raise the warp yarns. Each warp yarn can be raised and lowered separately; order. This kind of shedding mechanism can weave fabrics with large patterns, such as jacquard towels, jacquard blankets, jacquard brocades, sceneries and other fabrics. A loom equipped with a jacquard shedding mechanism is called a jacquard loom.
Weft insertion agency
The mechanism that introduces the weft yarn into the shed. On shuttle looms, the weft is hit by the shuttle mechanism to make the shuttle fly into the shed. The picking mechanism is divided into three types: top pick, middle pick and bottom pick. Due to the severe impact of this kind of shuttle mechanism, the vibration and noise of the loom are large, the machine and materials are consumed too much, and it is not safe enough. Sometimes, accidents of flying shuttle may occur. On the shuttleless loom, the weft is introduced into the shed by the weft inserter. This kind of loom without shuttle eliminates the shortcomings of picking.
A mechanism that pushes the weft introduced into the shed to the cloth sheave. There are two main types: one is to use cranks and connecting rods to drive the reeds on the sley and move back and forth to perform beating-up. This is called a connecting rod beating-up mechanism; the other is to drive the reeds on the sley by a conjugate cam. It is called a conjugate cam beating-up mechanism for beating-up with forward and backward motion. The cam can be designed as required to control the static time of the sley at the rear, which is suitable for weft insertion and beating-up of broad-width looms.
After the fabric is formed into the specified weft density, it is taken away from the work area and rolled onto the cloth roller. The fabric is usually wound up with a round roller covered with a friction material layer in a gear drive. The take-up mechanism can change the weft density of the fabric by changing gears.
The mechanism for sending out the warp according to the weaving needs is usually composed of two parts: the warp sending device on the weaving shaft and the warp tension adjusting device. During the weaving process, the warp yarns are required to have proper tension on the machine, and the warp yarn tension should not fluctuate up and down with the change of the weaving shaft diameter.
In addition, there are various auxiliary devices on the loom to increase the output and fabric quality of the loom, reduce the labor intensity of the weaver, prevent damage to parts, and protect the safety of the operator. Such as weft yarn breakage automatic stop device, warp yarn breakage automatic stop device, warp guard device, flying shuttle guard device and so on. When the loom is equipped with an automatic shuttle changing mechanism, it is called an automatic shuttle changing loom; when it is equipped with an automatic changing mechanism, it is called an automatic shuttle changing loom. When weaving patterned fabrics with different wefts, a multi-shuttle box mechanism is installed on the loom, which is called a multi-shuttle loom. Multi-shuttle box looms are divided into single-side multi-shuttle box and double-side multi-shuttle box. Single-sided multi-shuttle box means that one side of the loom is a single-shuttle box, and the other side is a multi-shuttle box. For example, a 1×4 multi-shuttle box is a single-sided 4 shuttle box. Double-sided multi-shuttle box means that both sides of the loom are multi-shuttle boxes. For example, a 4×4 multi-shuttle box is a double-sided 4 shuttle box.